Introduce the growth mindset to help students reflect on their learning process.

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Research by Carol Dweck and other social psychologists shows that students pursue more effective learning strategies when they see intellectual abilities as malleable (i.e., have a growth mindset) rather than innate (i.e., have a fixed mindset). Students with a growth mindset are more willing to learn from mistakes and challenge themselves. It can be helpful to tell students about this research to encourage them to adopt a growth mindset and to acknowledge that a fear of "looking stupid" is common.

Example: "You might be afraid to make mistakes, but mistakes are important!"

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